bacteria, bacterium, bacteriophage などが検索されます。ただし，アスタリスクの後にスペースが入るようなフレーズは検索されません。たとえば，「infection*」で検索したなら，「infections」は表示されますが，「infection
DJ Genomics」で検索した場合，Lipman DJ は著者名として認識し，次のように検索語を扱います。
Lipman DJ + Genomics
a Complex Boolean Expression をご覧の上，定型フォーマットにしたがってご利用ください。
Advanced Search （近日中に翻訳完成予定）
Entering a Search Term
To access the advanced search mode in Pubmed, simply click
on Advanced Search from the PubMed home page. You will then see a screen
that looks like this:
Enter one or more search terms.
Author names should be entered in the form Smith JB, but initials are optional.
Journal titles may be entered in full, as valid MEDLINE abbreviations,
or as ISSN numbers (see Journal Browser for more information).
Use pull-down menus to specify fields and search mode.
Boolean search statements can also be entered directly in the search box,
using AND, OR, and NOT logic operators. See Boolean
Search page for more information.
Select the field and mode under which you want to search, enter the
term you want to search for in the box given, and then press the Search
There are a number of search fields available in the PubMed database. A
description of each field is given below. If you choose to enter a complete
search statement into the search box directly, rather than using the pull-down
menu to specify search fields, an abbreviated field name must be used.
The valid field name abbreviations are included in brackets in the descriptions
Affiliation [AD, AFFL] contains the institutional affiliation and
address of the primary author, and sometimes of other authors.
All Fields [ALL] covers all searchable PubMed fields.
Author Name [AU, AUTH] contains the list of authors for a paper
in the literature. The format for author names is the last name, followed
by a space and the first initial(s), without periods. For example, David
J. Lipman would be Lipman DJ; James Ostell would be Ostell J . Initials
may be omitted when searching.
E. C. Number [RN, ECNO] is a number assigned by the Enzyme Commission
to designate a particular enzyme. This field also includes CAS Registry
Journal Title [TA, JOUR] is the name of the journal where the record
was published. Journal names are stored in the database in abbreviated
form; for instance, the Journal of Biological Chemistry is stored as J
Biol Chem . If you are not sure how a journal name is abbreviated, use
List Terms mode to browse the journal titles. You may also enter the complete
joujrnal name or the ISSN number in this field. A Journal Browser is also
available to look up the full name, abbreviation, and ISSN number of a
Language [LA, LANG] is the language in which the article was published.
Note that many non-English articles, however, do have English abstracts.
MeSH Major Topic [MAJR] includes all MeSH Terms (see below) that
are marked as being of major importance to this record by the National
Library of Medicine indexers for MEDLINE.
MeSH Terms [MH, MESH] includes all of the terms in the Medical Subject
Headings, a controlled vocabulary of terms used to index MEDLINE. Each
MEDLINE citation is given a group of MeSH terms that relate to the subject
of the paper from which it is drawn. Frequently, MeSH terms will have an
additional term, called a "subheading", which further defines how the MeSH
term relates to the article it is associated with. This subheading is appended
to the MeSH term, e.g. "pneumonia/diagnosis". Searching on the MeSH term
(here, pneumonia) will retrieve all of the articles that use that MeSH
term, whether they have subheadings or not. Use the subheading terms if
you require more specificity than the MeSH term alone allows.
Note: MeSH terms searched for using the Mesh or Mesh Major Topic fields
are automatically "exploded" by PubMed; that is, all terms which are logical
subsets of the term entered are included. For instance, "vision disorders"
includes "blindness" . MeSH terms found using the "All Fields" search,
however, are NOT exploded.
Modification Date [MDAT] contains the date that the record was placed
into PubMed, in the format year/month/day, as for Publication Date, see
Page Number [PAGE] is the number of the first journal page that
the article appears on.
Publication Date [DP, PDAT] contains the date that the article was
published in the format year/month/day, e.g. 1984/10/06. A year alone,
(e.g. "1984") will retrieve all articles for that year; a year and month
(e.g. "1984/03") will retrieve all for that month. Note that journals vary
in the way the date appers, some including only year, some year plus month,
some year plus month plus day. PubMed takes the date as it appears in the
Publication Type [PT, PTYP] refers to the form of presentation of
an article or other work. Examples include review articles, clinical trials,
randomized controlled trials, and retracted publications.
Substance [NM, SUBS] contains the names of any chemicals associated
with this record from the Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) registry and
the MEDLINE Name of Substance field.
Text Words [TW, WORD] includes all words in the title and abstract,
plus indivudial words from MeSH terms and chemi>
tle Words [TI, TITL] includes only those words found in the title of a
Volume [VI, VOL] is the number of the journal volume in which this
article is published..
Medline ID [UI, MUID] is the MEDLINE unique identifier of a given
PubMed ID [PMID] is the PubMed unique identifier of a given citation.
Finding all terms that begin with a given text string
Placing an asterisk at the end of a search term will cause PubMed to search
for all terms that begin with that word; for instance bacter* will find
all terms that begin with the letters bacter, e.g. bacteria, bacterium,
bacteriophage, etc. Phrases that have a space in the word that occurs after
the asterisk will NOT be included; for instance, "infection*" will include
"infections", but not "infection control".
Note! If the use of an * character results in too long a list of terms
to process efficiently (more than a hundred or so), PubMed will not perform
the search and will so inform you.
Forcing PubMed to search for a phrase
PubMed will do its best to find logical groupings in your input. For instance,
if you enter "Lipman DJ Genomics" (without quotes), PubMed will recognize
that Lipman DJ is the name of an author and will convert your search into
Lipman DJ AND Genomics
It may happen that PubMed fails to find a phrase that you think is vital
to a search. For instance, if you enter
PubMed will not recognize that this is all one item and will search
for "brca" and "1" separately. Since the latter is a numeral and is not
included in the index for title and abstract fields, it will likely not
find what you want. You can circumvent this by putting quotes (") around
the words that PubMed is failing to recognize, e.g.
PubMed does not actually perform adjacency searching, but employs a
list of recognized phrases against which search terms are matched. If your
search phrase is not on that list, then the individual terms are ANDed
together. Use of quotes forces PubMed to check a second dictionary to identify
the phrase. In addition, if you put the phrase in quotes, you are specifying
that the search be performed ONLY if the phrase is recognized. Individual
search terms will not be ANDed in this case.
Important! It is usually best to let Entrez do your grouping
for most accurate retrieval, and to use quotes only when PubMed has failed
to find anyting because of a failure to group words properly. Forcing PubMed
to group words will often result in "No Documents Found". This does not
mean that the phrase you are looking for does not exist; rather, it was
not indexed as a group.
Expert users of PubMed can, if they wish, enter a full boolean expression
in the term box. See Entering a Complex Boolean
WWW PubMed allows you to enter terms for searching in several different
In List Terms mode, when you enter a term, PubMed displays the list
of available terms for that field, starting at the first term which begins
with the characters that you entered. You can then select one or more terms
to add to your search. For example, to see the text terms beginning with
"pneum", you would enter "pneum" in the term box, select "Text Terms" and
"List Terms", then press Search . List Terms Mode thus allows you
to browse through the terms in any given field. This can be very useful
if you are not sure how something is spelled.
In Automatic mode, the term or terms that you enter are immediately
added to your search. If you enter more than one word, PubMed will look
for a phrase with the terms entered. If no phrase is found the terms will
be ANDed for your query results. If PubMed groups or fails to group the
words you entered properly, you can place one or more words in quotes (")
to force PubMed to group them as you wish.
Choosing a Term in List Terms Mode
If a term is entered in the term box using List Terms Mode and the
Search button pressed, a list of the terms that begin with the characters
entered in the term box will be presented. For instance, if "pneum" were
entered (with the field selector on "All Fields"), the resultant list might
look like this :
Available terms for the field All Fields (Number of Records)
After each term is the number of articles that the term appears in.
To pick one or more of the terms in the list of available terms, highlight
them and press Select; the terms will then be added to your search.
If you picked more than one term you will retrieve articles that contain
either of the two terms.
If the term that you want to select is not in the scrolling list of
terms, you can scroll up or down further by selecting Scroll List Up/Down
from the list, then pressing Select. If you want to look at another
list of terms altogether, simply reenter the new term in the term box as
before and press Search.
Your Chosen List of Terms
As you enter or select terms, the terms will be added to your search and
also placed into a list at the bottom of your screen; this list is called
the Chosen List. For example, if you had entered the term "pneumonia",
and then entered "cytomegalo*", the Chosen List would look like this (the
middle part of the form is omitted for brevity) :
Modify Current Query :
Term (Total Records)
PubMed automatically calculates the intersection of the terms you enter
and displays the resultant search statement at the top of the screen, calculating
the number of records to retrieve. The terms included in the search are
highlighted in the Chosen List. Once you have entered terms of interest,
you can do any of the following:
If the number of documents is reasonably small, press the Retrieve
button to see a listing of the records your search has chosen; see Retrieving
Select and/or deselect terms in the chosen list until the terms you wish
to include in the search are highlighted, then press the Search
button. The system will then create a new search statement based upon only
the highlighted terms, according to the type of search you have selected.
Here is what each of the search types do:
Terms or expressions which are combined using the Search button
are grouped into a single entity and placed on a separate line in the Chosen
List. This permits you to combine terms flexibly in many ways.
Intersection (AND): only those records that contain all of
the terms specified are returned by the search. This is abbreviated to
'&' in the search statement.
Union (OR): those records that contain any of the terms specified
are returned. This is abbreviated to '|' .
Difference (BUTNOT): those records that contain the uppermost term
but not any of the lower terms are returned. This is abbreviated to '-'
Note that the Retrieve button will continue to retrieve your
old search until you tell the system to update your search using the Search
When the number of documents that satisfy your query is reasonably small,
press the Retrieve button to view them. This produces a listing
containing each document's title, author, and publication year. This listing
is called the Document Summary Page, and is discussed in detailed below.
If the number of documents that your query retrieves is large, a box
will appear indicating the maximum number of articles that will be displayed
at a time. You can change this number to whatever is suitable. If you cannot
or do not choose to display all of the articles that your search has found,
the articles you do see will be the more recent ones in the database.
The Document Summary Page
Once you have pressed the Retrieve button, PubMed will display a
listing of information on the documents that your search has found. This
permits you to browse through the retrieved list of documents easily. Once
you have determined which documents in the list are of interest, you can
view them individually or as a group.
Each document can be viewed in any of several formats. The best way to
decide what format best suits you for any given purpose is to experiment
with them and see what they look like.
To view a single document in PubMed, select the link at the top of the
document. This will show you the document in default Citation format, which
includes journal citation, article title, authors, affiliation or address,
abstract, MeSH terms and chemical substances, and the MEDLINE and PubMed
unique identification numbers.
To view several documents at once, select the documents you wish to
view by selecting their checkboxes. If you want to view all of the documents
on the page, there is no need to select any of them. Then pick the type
of report you want from the pull down menu at the top of the screen and
Viewing formats available include:
For PubMed articles:
Citation report - Journal Citation, Title, Authors, Address or Affiliation,
Abstract, MeSH terms, chemical substances, MEDLINE and PubMed unique identifiers.
Abstract report - Journal Citation, Title, Authors, Address or Affiliation,
MEDLINE report - Traditional two-character tagged field MEDLINE format
for the full record. This is the format to use for downloading records
into bibliographic management software packages.
ASN.1 report - A structured format for the full record, in which each data
element is explicitly represented.
Getting Document Neighbors and Links
One of the most helpful features of PubMed is the ability to find documents
that are similar to a document you are interested in. These related documents
are called neighbors. For more details on what neighbors are, how
they are calculated, and how to use them, see Special
To retrieve the neighbors or links for a given record or set of records,
the procedure is the same as for viewing records, above. Select the document(s)
using the checkboxes on the left (select nothing to see them all). Then
select the type of link you want from the pull down menu at the top of
the screen and click the display button.
Outside Links to Journals
Some Documents have links to the WWW site for the specific journal in which
the full text of the article is published. This will appear as a named
journal button at the top of the article report.
For Experts Only
This section explains features of PubMed that may be of interest to users
with very specific needs. Most users do not need to be familiar with the
items in this section.
Entering Complex Boolean Expressions
A search can be performed by specifying the terms to search, their fields,
and the boolean operations to performs on them, all at once. Use the following
term [field] operator term [field]
term is the term string that you wish to search on. All of the terms
that begin with a given string can be searched on by appending an * to
the end of the term.
For example, "baker*[auth]" would find all of the author names that
begin with 'baker'.
field is the PubMed field designation, where AD=affiliation,
ALL=all fields, AU=author, TA=journal title, MAJR=MeSH Major Topic, MH=MeSH
terms, MDAT-modification date, PAGE=page number, PDAT=publication date,
PT=publication type, NM=substance name, TW=text words, TI=title words,
operator is any of :
Note : Boolean expressions are normally processed left to right. If you
wish part of your boolean expression to be processed out of order, enclose
it in parentheses.
AND (for intersection)
OR (for union)
NOT (for difference).
An Example of a boolean expression : Find the articles in the Journal
of Biological Chemistry that contain the term "p21" in their text :
p21 [TW] AND J Biol Chem [TA]
What makes PubMed more powerful than many services is that most of its
records are linked to other records, both within a given database and between
databases. Links within a database are called "neighbors".
PubMed neighbors are determined by comparing the Text and MeSH terms
of each article, using a powerful algorithm that determines just how well
the article matches every other article. The best matches for any article
are saved, and you can retrieve them using the "Related Articles" button
at the top of the article report.
What this means is that if you find one or a few documents that match
what you are looking for, using the "MEDLINE neighbors" on the pulldown
menu will find a great many more documents that are likely to be relevant,
in order from most useful to least. This allows you to find what you want
with much greater speed and accuracy: instead of having to flip through
thousands of documents to assure yourself that nothing germane to your
query was missed, you can find just a few, then look at their neighbors.
Try this feature out and see how it works for you; you may well wonder
how you got along without it!
In addition, some documents are linked to others for reasons other than
computed similarity. For instance, if a nucleotide or protein sequence
was published in a PubMed article, the two will be linked to one another.
For More Assistance
If you have found a bug or are still confused, please e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org
and we will be happy to assist you.